The Army has issued new versions of its capstone field manuals (FMs) that set the doctrinal foundation for Army Transformation. As the Army Chief of Staff, General Eric K. Shinseki, observed, "These manuals define who we are, what we do, how we do it, and the road ahead."
FM 1, The Army, replaces the 1994 version of FM 100-1 (also titled "The Army") as the Army's capstone manual. It describes the Army's purpose, roles, and functions and provides basic doctrine for using land power in support of the National Security Strategy and National Military Strategy. FM 1 has four parts: the Army's role in the profession of arms; the Army's place in strategic and joint military operations; the Army's core competencies; and the Army's future.
FM 3-0, Operations, replaces the 1993 version of FM 100-5 (also titled "Operations"). It fleshes out the basic principles in FM 1 by establishing doctrine on the conduct of military operations and pointing operations toward transformation to the Objective Force. FM 3-0 describes how the Army will conduct operations across the full spectrum of military operations and sets a framework of offense, defense, stability, and support operations. According to General Shinseki, "FM 3-0 must be studied and understood by all Army leaders . . . it provides a professional intellectual framework for how we operate."
The new manuals are numbered to correspond to the Department of Defense numbering system (Joint Publication 1, Joint Warfare of the Armed Forces; Joint Publication 3-0, Joint Operations). FM 1 and FM 3-0 were released on the Army's 226th birthday, 14 June.
On 12 July, Secretary of the Army Thomas E. White and Army Chief of Staff General Eric K. Shinseki named four more units to be converted to the interim brigade combat team (IBCT) design. They are the 172d Infantry Brigade (Separate) at Fort Wainwright, Alaska; the 2d Armored Cavalry Regiment (Light) at Fort Polk, Louisiana; the 2d Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Light), at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii; and the 56th Brigade, 28th Infantry Division (Mechanized), a Pennsylvania Army National Guard unit in Philadelphia. These latest brigade selections for the Interim Force are conditional upon the outcome of an ongoing Army Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement that is projected to be completed in the fall.
The Army currently has two IBCTs, the 3d Brigade, 2d Infantry Division, and the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division, both at Fort Lewis, Washington.
The Army is coordinating with the contractor of the interim armored vehicle (IAV) to determine appropriate ways to accelerate IAV fielding for the two IBCTs at Fort Lewis. The Army plan is to complete fielding of the IAV for the other four brigades within 3 years after the Fort Lewis brigades are fielded.
"These interim brigades will help us move towards a force that is more strategically responsive and dominant across the spectrum of military operations," said Secretary White. "Their improved deployability and lethality will enhance deterrence and meet an operational requirement that does not currently exist."
Army officials anticipate that transformation of an active-component brigade to the IBCT design will take about 1 year. Transformation of the Army National Guard brigade will take about 2 years.
Engineers and scientists at the Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM's) National Automotive Center, working with partners in industry, have designed a demonstration trailer that someday may allow Army maintenance professionals to make their own repair parts on the battlefield. The Mobile Parts Hospital (MPH) trailer combines the latest manufacturing infrastructure and technologies in a mobile unit that can deploy quickly when required. Both standard and unique parts can be manufactured in the trailer from technical data and computer-numeric control codes.
The MPH demonstration trailer is a standard tractor-trailer equipped with a vertical milling machine that has been modified to serve also as a lathe; a selective laser sinter machine that converts powdered rubber, metal, plastics, and ceramics into actual parts; and a laser-point scanner. The trailer also has the latest communications technology, including connections to satellites, various computer networks, web-based technologies, and cellular phones.
The MPH's touchless, laser-point scanner. Scanning a part, even a broken one, yields engineering data needed to manufacture a replica part.
The MPH will be able to send and receive digital, manufacturing-ready data as a self-contained, self-sustaining mobile design, simulation, and mini-manufacturing center. It will slash long part procurement times by providing repair parts near the point of need in the battlespace.
As the program evolves, the MPH likely will be housed in ISO containers. Using ISO containers would permit the MPH to be deployed by air in C-130 aircraft, thereby meeting the Army's 96-hour deployability goal.
The program currently is funded for two phases. Phase I, which focused on building the demonstration trailer, began in June 2000. Phase II goals include manufacturing larger parts, increasing the number of parts in the MPH database, refining the technology needed to create 3-dimensional part data when no engineering data are available, inserting maturing manufacturing and rapid prototyping technology into the first prototype in ISO containers, ruggedizing the platform to ensure and retain accurate machine calibration, and testing the parts made in phase I to establish reliability data.
Phase II also will focus on creating agile manufacturing cells at several Army depots in the continental United States. Depot personnel would manufacture parts too big for the MPH's capacity or that were outside the scope of mobile manufacturing. Data could be sent to and from the MPH via satellites, cell phones, or web-based browsers. Cell staff could produce the part and send it to the area of operation via express mail.
"Right now, this is just an R&D [research and development] program," explained Coryne Forest, MPH program manager. "We're only able to produce a repair part, not a `fully qualified' replacement part. However, in a few years, the technology will be there to produce those high-quality parts with the same life expectancy as an original part."
The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) team that supports Operation Joint Forge moved from Taszar, Hungary, to Camp Comanche near Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina, in April. This move reflects the theater's maturity, which allows DLA to support operations from within Bosnia and centralize the DLA support structure. The agency provides deployed U.S. and North Atlantic Treaty Organization forces in Bosnia with food, fuel, spare parts, and other supplies.
The new location brings the team closer to fuel operations in Split, Croatia, and food delivery operations in Zagreb, Croatia, and will facilitate DLA coordination with planners in Sarajevo, Bosnia. As DLA's representative to the front-line customers in Bosnia, the team provides a storefront where Army logisticians can come to resolve DLA issues.
A small, contractor-operated reutilization and marketing office remains in Taszar.
The Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) has decided to let private enterprise manage its 10,000 ammunition containers and provide leasing services to Department of Defense customers. The decision to contract for container management was made in May by Major General Kenneth L. Privratsky, MTMC commander. A contract could be effective by 1 October 2002.
MTMC is developing a statement of work that will support a contract under which a single contractor will maintain ammunition containers at key facilities and geographic locations. The contractor will be responsible for leasing the containers, replacing them as they are shipped, and maintaining container serviceability.
Currently, MTMC's containers are supposed to be stored at the Operations Support Command-managed ammunition depots in the continental United States. However, containers delivered overseas often remain there for prolonged periods because returning empty containers is expensive. While at the overseas locations, the containers often are used for other purposes, rendering as many as 25 percent of them unsafe for hauling ammunition.
After the container-management contract is awarded, MTMC-owned containers that are still serviceable will be transferred to other military users. Containers in poor condition will be disposed of through the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service or used for nontransportation purposes such as storage.
Functional oversight of the container-management contract will be exercised by the Office of the MTMC Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations.
For more information, send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org or call (703) 428-2436.
The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) has formed an innovative partnership with Stewart & Stevenson Tactical Vehicle Systems, LP (TVSLP), to obtain parts on line for its Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV). The program streamlines after-market sales and increases efficient delivery of parts to FMTV users.
A pilot program called the Defense Supply Center Inventory Locator Network (DILNet) provides a central database that indicates the availability of off-the-shelf parts available to DLA's Defense Supply Center Philadelphia (DSCP) from participating vendors. DLA buyers can view near-real-time inventories of parts located at the vendors' warehouses and order the needed parts on line.
TVSLP, the only original equipment manufacturer participating in DILNet, provides DSCP with a daily update of spare FMTV parts in stock at its Sealy, Texas, facility. DLA then lists available parts in a database accessible to DLA buyers. A DSCP customer can send a purchase order for parts on line to TVSLP, and, if the parts are available, TVSLP will deliver them directly to the customer in the field.
The partnership agreement between TVSLP and DLA was signed in February, and TVSLP shipped out its first on-line FMTV order in early March. This collaboration between DLA and TVSLP decreases customer wait times and enables DLA to reduce its inventory at DSCP by allowing customers direct access to vendor-based inventories. Pending successful testing of DILNet at DSCP, DLA expects to expand DILNet to its other supply centers in Richmond, Virginia, and Columbus, Ohio.
UPGRADED FMTV FIELDED TO RESERVE
The Army Reserve has received its first shipment of Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) A1 trucks, upgrading its limited fleet of A0 model FMTV.
Ninety-three FMTV A1s are being fielded to Army Reserve units in Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas. The new FMTV will help fill some of the Reserve's most critical equipment priorities. The Army Reserve provides 30 percent of the Army's combat support and 45 percent of its combat service support.
The trucks, manufactured by Stewart & Stevenson Tactical Vehicle Systems, LP, of Sealy, Texas, have 2.5-ton and 5-ton payloads in 14 variants with 85 percent commonality of parts. The FMTV can perform a variety of missions, including line haul, local haul, unit mobility, unit resupply, and other combat support missions.
An FMTV 5-ton cargo truck. (Photo courtesy of Stewart and Stevenson.)
The Army Materiel Command's Center for Continuous Change Management received the Army's first International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001:2000 Certificate of Registration in May. ISO 9001:2000 registration is an internationally recognized certification that indicates that the recipient has achieved a documented systematic approach to managing change that focuses on the customer, leadership, fact-based decision making, and continual improvement. Achieving certification to the ISO 9001:2000 standard shows that an organization conducts its business exactly as it says it does, with a high level of quality and commitment to its customers.
A new Army digital deployed training campus can be shipped anywhere in the world and set up and ready to train soldiers in about 3 hours.
The deployed campus uses the Internet and a two-way video and voice system. It consists of 17 laptop computers; multiplex equipment that can handle video, voice, and fax; telephones; and a deployable antenna. It fits into 19 specially designed boxes that can be loaded onto a C-130 loading pallet.
|CWO5 Charlie Bos explains the digital campus equipment and operation to training developers and managers at Fort Monroe, Virginia.|
Forerunners of the Deployable Training Campus have been in operation in the Sinai, Kosovo, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Germany, some for as long as 6 years. So far, the system at Vilseck, Germany, has saved U.S. Army Europe about $7 million to train soldiers in the Battle Staff Noncommissioned Officers Course (BSNCOC). Three times a year, instruction is beamed via satellite from the Sergeants Major Academy at Fort Bliss, Texas, to soldiers who need the training. Although soldiers from installations around Europe travel to Vilseck for the training, the cost is much less than sending them to the United States for training. Soldiers from deployed areas such as Bosnia can be included in the training without having to leave their operational areas.
The new system was built for about $400,000, including research and development. "These systems will hopefully cost less than $200,000 by the end of the next iteration. And they'll be twice as powerful and half the size," said Chief Warrant Officer (W-5) Charlie Bos, chief of the Deployed Training Branch in the office of the Army Training and Doctrine Command's Deputy Chief of Staff for Training.
"This prototype supports the Army's concept of training soldiers in the environment they're going to fight in," said Bos. "They can be trained on their critical tasks and remain proficient."
The first priority for the Deployed Training Campus is military training, according to Bos. Next on the priority list is individual professional military development, followed by civilian education. Live classes are beamed from institutions such as City Colleges of Chicago and the University of Maryland after duty hours to deployed troops. Classes are scheduled through the Network Control Center (NCC) at Fort Eustis, Virginia. The NCC handles communications and schedules classes for all the deployed training sites.
Morale and welfare is the fourth priority. When not in use for training, soldiers can use the digital campus to call their families if the calls are local to Fort Eustis or can be patched through using the Defense Switching Network. Computers are available to get on the Internet to correspond with families and friends. Deployed soldiers also can schedule video visits with families through video teleconference centers on installations in the United States and overseas.
Two more digital campus prototypes are undergoing initial acceptance tests at Fort Eustis. When those systems are certified, one will be put into use at Camp Bonnefield in Bosnia, and the second will replace the equipment in Kosovo.
The Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC) is looking to commercial carriers to help trim overseas freight shipping times. Military freight shipments, from requisition to receipt, to U.S. military units in Germany now take approximately 56 days. MTMC wants to shorten that time to no more than 40 days by synchronizing cargo between transshipment points.
While a ship's voyage across the Atlantic usually takes only 8 or 9 days, considerable time is lost in transshipment synchronization. Each military service has its own distribution system that is not coordinated and synchronized with those of other services. As a result, containers sometimes sit in a terminal several weeks waiting for an ocean shipment.
In a meeting with MTMC officials in January, shipping executives agreed to work with MTMC to speed shipments.
Cutting shipping times on maritime shipments is part of the Strategic Distribution Management Initiative, which is an effort by the U.S. Transportation Command and the Defense Logistics Agency to speed freight shipments.
OPERATION SHARPENS PEACE ENFORCERS' VISION AND AIM
Last May, approximately 200 U.S. soldiers who were deployed to Bundase, Ghana, and Thies, Senegal, as a part of Operation Focus Relief, performed vision checks and provided marksmanship training to Ghanaian and Senegalese battalions in order to prepare them for future peace-enforcement missions. The operation was part of an initiative announced by President Bill Clinton in August 2000 to equip and train battalions from West African countries to conduct tactical operations up to the infantry company level.
The majority of the deployed soldiers were assigned to the 3d Special Forces Group (Airborne) and the Army Special Operations Command, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The remaining participants were Special Forces soldiers assigned to U.S. Army Europe.
In the photo at right, an optometrist from the Heidelberg Medical Activity performs an eye exam on a Ghanaian soldier. The exam resulted in the soldier receiving a pair of eyeglasses.
A soldier in Ghana's 64th Infantry Regiment loads a magazine into his new rifle.
During the operation, more than 750 soldiers were screened by optometrists from the Heidelberg Medical Activity, and between 150 and 200 pairs of eyeglasses were provided to the future peacekeepers. The Ghanaian soldiers then put their improved vision to the test during marksmanship training, focusing on grouping shot patterns and zeroing in on targets by aligning the sights on the M16A1 rifle.
The U.S. Army provided the Ghanaian and Senegalese soldiers with approximately 1,500 sets of individual equipment, including rucksacks, canteens, new uniforms, and boots. Other items of military hardware provided to both countries included light machineguns, 2½-ton cargo trucks, medical sets, and communications equipment. The deployment lasted approximately 10 weeks, with the U.S. forces redeploying in mid-August.
SOLEthe International Society of Logisticswill hold its 4th Annual Professional Development Workshop and Technical Conference 11 through 13 April 2002 at the Holiday Inn Hampton Hotel and Conference Center in Hampton, Virginia. The theme of the conference is "Logistics: Beyond 2002." The conference offers logisticians an opportunity to present professional papers that showcase new concepts, innovations, and changes in approach or evaluation techniques and individual success stories in any area of logistics. One- or two-page abstracts of papers proposed for presentation at the conference should be sent not later than 1 November to: Eric R. Nelson, 106 Wharf Row, Yorktown, Virginia 23665. Abstracts also can be sent electronically to email@example.com. For more information and conference registration forms, visit the SOLE Mid-Atlantic Log web site at www.mid-atlantic-log.addr.com.
In May, 30 AH-64 Apache helicopters were partially dismantled, shrink-wrapped, and towed from the Army airfield in Sandhofen, Germany, to the nearby NATO barge site in Lampertheim, Germany, to begin a land and sea journey to the United States. The helicopters had flown to the airfield from various locations. In Lampertheim, the helicopters were loaded on barges to be shipped to Rotterdam, The Netherlands. There, they were transferred to a ship headed for Charleston, South Carolina. After a major overhaul, which is expected to take about a year and cost $15 million per aircraft, the helicopters will be returned to Europe. The shipping operation was managed in Germany by the 2/502d Aviation Regiment.
The 5th Annual Department of Defense (DOD) Maintenance Symposium, sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense in conjunction with the National Defense Industrial Association, will be held 29 October through 1 November at the Hyatt Regency Crown Center in Kansas City, Missouri. The theme of the symposium is "Meeting the Readiness Challenge Through Innovative Maintenance." For more information, visit the NDIA Symposium web site at http://register.ndia.org/interview/register.ndia.
A number of Army installations, including Fort Monmouth, New Jersey; Fort Meade, Maryland; Tobyhanna Army Depot, Pennsylvania; Fort Hamilton, New York; Fort Detrick, Maryland; and Fort Myer, Virginia, have begun issuing Common Access Cards (CACs).
The CAC eventually will replace the standard military identification card, Department of Defense (DD) Form 1173, for active-duty and selected Reserve component members of all services, Department of Defense civilians, and some contractors. Retirees and military family members will continue to use DD Form 2 (Reserve retired identification card) or 1173-1 (family member identification card), as appropriate.
In addition to the privileges and access permitted by the current identification cards, CACs will allow users to log on to Department of Defense computer networks and systems and digitally sign and encrypt e-mail. Program officials predict that the CAC eventually will allow keyless entry into equipped Government buildings and controlled areas.
Fielding of the CAC to all Army installations will continue through July 2002. Dr. Linda S. Dean, director of the Army's Electronic Commerce Office, says, "If I had just one message to get out to the field, it would be to find ways to use the Common Access Card in your business processes, because its capability is going to continually expand."
An improved intermediate cold/wet boot with a removable insulating liner and softer, more flexible mid-sole is now available to soldiers.
An earlier variant of the boot fielded in the early 1990's filled the void between standard-issue leather combat boots that offer minimal protection in cold and damp conditions and extreme cold weather vapor-barrier boots that lock out the cold and water with their rubber-enclosed air chambers but do not "breathe."
The new boots' uppers are made from leather that is produced according to military specifications. The leather is bonded to a Gore-Tex lining and is highly water-resistant and breathable. The 200-gram insulation liners can be pulled out and exchanged with dry ones if they get wet, allowing soldiers to continue wearing the same boots. Two sets of liners come with the boot, but more will be available if needed.
The new boots are made with soft polyurethane mid-soles and have rugged, aggressive-tread Vibram vulcanized rubber outer soles. The boot tongues also are made from the more breathable leather.
"[The new material is] especially important when it's cold because the previous mid-sole materials stiffen," said Chris Palmer, project officer for military footwear at the Army Soldier Systems Center at Natick, Massachusetts. "The flexible forefoot should mean less rubbing and [fewer] blisters at the heel. It doesn't change as much in cold weather, and it's easier to walk in, especially going uphill."
In a test by recruits at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, the improved cushioning provided by the polyurethane in the new boots yielded a 30-percent reduction in lower extremity injuries. The boots also were tested in Alaska and Vermont. Troops there found them highly acceptable, with the boots staying much drier and warmer.
The National Defense Transportation Association (NDTA) will hold its 56th Annual Transportation and Logistics Forum and Exposition at the Hilton Hotel-Milwaukee City Center and Midwest Express Convention Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 29 September to 3 October. This year's theme is "Gaining Momentum in the New Millennium." Additional information is available on the NDTA web site at www.ndtahq.com.