The author tells how the Army Training and Doctrine Command is helping define homeland security for the Army and the Nation.
Homeland security is in the news more and more often these days. It is a topic that is addressed in numerous civilian and military studies, mentioned by various officials in both the administration and Congress, and of growing importance to military leaders. The question, "What is homeland security?" cannot be answered fully. It is an idea that crosses numerous disciplines and has many interpretations. However, for the Army, an answer to that question is beginning to take shape.
For the past few years, numerous Army agencies have explored homeland security. From this long and sometimes contentious effort, Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), has produced a vision for, and definition of, homeland security and has identified mission areas to guide its efforts.
HQDA began developing Army Homeland Security Strategic Planning Guidance in the fall of 2000. Currently in draft form, this document has been staffed throughout the major Army commands and reviewed by a general officer steering committee. The draft guidance is a product of a series of Army-sponsored workshops. It incorporates other activities' studies and ideas and places all of the information within the framework of laws, directives, and regulations that govern the Army. This document is designed to begin the conceptual process of defining homeland security and develop a common Army position and terms of reference on homeland security.
The draft guidance outlines the Army's responsibility to conduct defensive operations as part of the Department of Defense's (DOD's) commitment to defend the United States from external attack by land, sea, or air and to conduct support operations for civil authorities in widely varied circumstances (see chart on page 8). These two types of operations are discussed in draft Field Manual (FM) 3-0, Operations (formerly FM 100-5).
The draft guidance does not establish doctrine, nor does it address force structure or requirements to man, equip, or employ the Army. It explores the two overarching principles of the Army's participation in homeland security. First, the Army will be a supporting organization working for civil authorities in most missions. Second, the Army will be a supporting component of the commander in chief in a joint operation.
The draft Army Homeland Security Strategic Planning Guidance sets numerous goals, objectives, and tasks. Although the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, HQDA, has the primary responsibility for coordinating the Army's actions in homeland security, the Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), along with other commands and agencies, will assist its efforts. TRADOC will
For TRADOC, the DTLOMS process is the basis for approaching homeland security. Much of what the Army will have to accomplish to provide homeland security will be a modification of a wartime task. However, some totally new developments also will be required.
Doctrine. Doctrine defines fundamental principles that guide military actions in support of national objectives. Doctrine is not written on the spur of the moment, but only after the progressive analysis of an idea, followed by the development of a vision, then the production of a concept; that concept then is explored through experimentation, which leads to a doctrinal document. Currently, homeland security is an emerging idea with some vision attached to it. Although it is viewed as something new, most of it is not. When dissected into its component parts, many aspects of homeland security, such as domestic support operations, information operations, counterterrorism, and offensive and defensive operations, are covered in existing doctrine.
Training. Often, individual and collective tasks remain the same as a unit accomplishes its mission in a homeland security environment. However, in a domestic setting, certain civil regulations may dictate different standards of acceptable equipment and procedures. Training requirements for operations within the United States, especially when they include interaction with civilians in a public setting, must be considered. This is especially true in a CBRNE event where domestic Federal regulatory agencies, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, apply civil standards to military operations that involve hazardous materials. To comply with these standards, certain units will require specialized individual and collective training. MANSCEN also will continue to provide expert training to new units such as the Weapons of Mass Destruction-Civil Support Teams (WMD-CSTs). [See article on page 21.]
Leader development. Although units on homeland security missions will execute their operations within an existing military command and control structure, they generally will be working for a civilian agency. This will require an increased awareness of what is needed to operate successfully in a joint, interagency, and multijurisdictional context. Army leaders must understand the civilian homeland security process and how their units will operate within the civil sphere.
Laws and regulations that are not used in foreign environments govern domestic operations. This is especially true when providing support to civil law-enforcement operations. These parameters must be clearly defined, and training at the institutional and unit levels must ensure that leaders fully understand them.
Organization. New organizations such as the WMD-CSTs have been activated to support homeland security in the CBRNE response mission area. The WMD-CSTs are authorized in many state Army National Guard structures to assist civil authorities in CBRNE incidents. Other organizations, such as chemical reconnaissance-decontamination units, have had their missions expanded to include domestic CBRNE support. This has required the units to train on how to operate civilian equipment and the inclusion of proper handling of CBRNE materials among the units' functions. Existing active Army chemical and biological units have been organized into chemical-biological rapid response teams that can be deployed in response to a CBRNE event.
As homeland security responsibilities are recognized and authorized, other new units may be created. The largest of these probably will be the Army's segment of the national missile defense organization.
Materiel. Much of the Army's equipment is compatible with that required to support civil authorities in the aftermath of a disaster or attack. The Army has a great deal of experience in such support. However, materiel will have to be developed to support national missile defense. As the Army develops new equipment, it may be possible to incorporate features that will allow it to be adapted to a civilian environment.
To posture itself for national missile defense, the Army should take advantage of the rapid growth of civilian technology. Often this equipment can be used domestically in its off-the-shelf configuration without the modification or hardening that may be required for combat use.
Soldiers. The Army Valuesloyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, honor, integrity, and personal courageapply to a soldier's actions in a domestic role as easily as they do on a battlefield. The strength of the Army has been, and will continue to be, its soldiers, civilians, and families. The Army's support to homeland security will be as professional as when it is called upon to fight in a foreign land.
Homeland security is not a new requirement for the Army. Since its inception, the Army's primary purpose has been to protect the Nation's citizens, their property, and their way of life. This message may have been lost in the latter part of the last century, when the Army emphasized forward presence and overseas operations, but to the people of Hawaii, Alaska, the Philippines, Guam, and other parts of the U.S. sovereign homeland that were bombed and occupied in the 1940s, the need for homeland security was a real thing.
As the Nation rediscovers this issue, it should not go unnoticed that the Army already does much of what will be required to ensure homeland security. It is a matter of framing the context of the Army's missions and supporting role and applying its capabilities to the task. When new requirements emerge, the Army must show its flexibility and adjust to the needs.
The Army needs a clear vision of homeland security requirements from the elected leadership in the executive and legislative branches of the Federal Government. This must be followed by equally clear guidance from DOD leadership, both in and out of uniform. Then the Army can position its assets to accomplish the mission. Until this happens, the Army must prepare to assist the Nation as the requirements evolve. In the meantime, the tendency to create new phrases and terms where those that already exist are clear should be avoided. The Army must leverage its great skills and soldiers to the continued benefit of the Nation. ALOG
Larry Heystek is a contractor with the AB Technologies Group, Illinois Institute of Technology Research. For the past 2½ years, he has worked on TRADOC's role in homeland security at the Joint and Army Doctrine Directorate of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Doctrine, Headquarters, Army Training and Doctrine Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia. He is a retired Infantry officer. While on active duty, he held numerous command and staff positions in the United States, Europe, and the Middle East.